The great diversity of environmental physical characteristics is matched by
an equally remarkable diversity of ecosystems, whether plant or
animal. There are forestral, pre-forestral, pre-steppic, steppic,
desert, aquatic (sea, coastal, and continental) ecosystems which extend over
a range of bioclimactic levels: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid, and humid.
Forestral ecosystems are composed of natural formations of leafy trees, (Holm, Oak, Cork, Tauzin Oak, Argani, Oleaster) and of coniferous trees (Cedar, Aleppo pine, Coastal Pine, Black pine, and Thuya) distributed among the different bioclimatic levels from semi-arid to humid.
Oak plantations occupy the plains and piedmonts of mountains, while the cedar groves (Coastal Pine, and Black Pine) are located in higher regions. The only Moroccan fir tree is found in the heights of Western Rif in the region of Chaouen. In the south endemic argan trees are found in the semi-arid and arid zones and constitute, with the Acacia, the species most adapted to aridity.
The floristic panorama of Moroccan forests is rich in herbaceous and shrub species, of which a great number are endemic or of medicinal aromatic interest. Forestral fauna is equally well diversified and rich in bird, reptile, and mammal species (Sparrow, Macaque Monkey, Porcupine, Boar).
The principal forestral ecosystem are: