Folder Holm oak

The Holm Oak (Quercus rotundifolia) is very abundant in Morocco where it is found in all mountain regions.  This is a very supple and hardy specie, capable of withstanding very difficult ecological conditions, which can settle on all terrains and favor the growth of less hardy species.  The oak displays structures generally in pluristratified coppices, rich in species.  The principal types of trees concurrent with the holm  oak are the oaks (Quercus suber, Quercus faginea), Pine, Cedar, red Juniper and to a lesser degree the Barbary Thuya.  Among the underbrush species we can cite:  Viburnum tinus, Arbutus unedo, Pistacia lentiscus, Ruscus aculeatus, Daphne laureola, Ilex aquifolium, Hedera helix, Lonicera spp., Cistus spp., etc...

 The oak groves of the Middle Atlas contain the greatest diversity of fauna.  Indeed we can find more than 400 species of Arthropods with the predominance of  Coleopterans and Hymenopterans, more than 35 bird species nest there, of which three quarters have northern affinities, that is a commonality with birds of continental temperate forests of Europe.