Results of the United Nations Conference on Biodiversity held in Mexico from 2 to 17 December 2016
From 2 to 3 December 2016 in Cancun, Mexico hosted the High-Level Segment (HSN) and 4-17 December 2016, the 13th Conference of the Parties (COP13) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the 2nd Conference Of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Nagoya Protocol (COP-MOP2) and the 8th Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Cartagena Protocol (COP-MOP8) the biodiversity. The United Nations Conference on Biodiversity adopted 33 decisions for COP 13, 12 decisions for COP-MOP 8 to the Cartagena Protocol and 14 for COP-MOP 2 to the Nagoya Protocol. The Parties to the CBD have agreed on measures that will accelerate the implementation of the global biodiversity targets and strengthen the linkage with biodiversity agendas, including the Sustainable Development Goals, Of Paris on Climate and others. The 170 countries that participated in the CBD 13th COP 13 agreed on a series of measures that will enhance the implementation of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, including integration, capacity building and As well as actions on specific themes, including protected areas, restoration of ecosystems, others.
|Keywords||Conference, Biodiversity, Aichi Objectives, Ministers|
The high-level meeting focused on four sectors that have major implications for biodiversity: food and agriculture, tourism, fisheries and aquaculture, and forestry. In addition to the environment ministers, a large number of ministers and other senior representatives from the four sectors concerned attended the high-level meeting. The meeting also discussed the interdependencies between biodiversity-related action and climate change, as well as the importance of biodiversity for the Sustainable Development Program to 2030
At the high-level meeting, Ministers and Heads of Delegations made commitments set out in the Cancún Declaration. They agreed to promote the integration of biological diversity as the main theme of the meeting proposed by the Government of Mexico and to use an integrated approach that would not only promote intersectoral linkages, but also link the efforts to implement the Strategies and action plans, as well as sustainable development strategies and plans.
Ministers and Heads of Delegations also demonstrated their commitment to achieving Aichi's biodiversity goals and showed that the biodiversity agenda is central and essential to global sustainable development and climate change programs.
Many countries have declared commitments by their countries to support many of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, which provide the necessary impetus to meet the targets by 2020.
The Global Environment Facility (GEF) supports the international community's commitment during the COP to integrate biodiversity considerations into the activities of other critical sectors of economies including agriculture, fisheries, Forestry and tourism.
The GEF, as the financial mechanism of the Convention, has confirmed its crucial role in helping countries meet their commitments under the Convention and its Protocols. It is also encouraged by the strong support of many donor and recipient countries to maintain coherence with its current biodiversity programming strategy with integrated approaches in response to the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity while seeking innovative and creative new funding opportunities .
Main results of the United Nations Conference on Biodiversity
The United Nations Conference on Biodiversity, held in Cancun, Mexico, from 2 to 17 December 2016, brought together some 7,000 people representing 4,000 delegates from 170 countries and more than 400 organizations.
The high-level segment was organized on 2 and 3 December 2016 under the theme "Integrating biodiversity for well-being" and brought together 382 participants, 50 government ministers, 40 vice-ministers, 42 heads of delegation, and 250 representatives of national and international organizations.
The meeting focused on four sectors that have major implications for biodiversity: food and agriculture, tourism, fisheries and aquaculture, and forestry.
The main aspects evoked by the Cancun Final Declaration are:
The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Goals:
The Cancun Declaration underscores the commitment and determination of Ministers to intensify efforts to ensure the effective implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Biodiversity and facilitate closer collaboration with other initiatives in international fora related to sustainable development.
Integrating Biodiversity into Agriculture, Fisheries, Forestry and Tourism:
The Ministers undertake to work at all levels within government and in all sectors to integrate biodiversity by creating effective institutional legislative and regulatory frameworks, adopting an inclusive economic, social and cultural approach adapted to the needs and National situations and in accordance with other relevant international agreements with full respect for nature and human rights.
Mobilization of resources:
The Ministers undertake to intensify efforts to mobilize resources from all sources; And to encourage organizations such as the Global Environment Facility, development banks and financial and cooperation institutions to support policy coherence in programs, capacity building, knowledge management and Implementation mechanisms, particularly in developing countries and countries with economies in transition, depending on national circumstances.
Biodiversity and climate change and disaster risk reduction:
Ministers declared Implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Paris 2015 Agreement adopted at the twenty-first session of the Conference of the Parties, which recognizes the importance of Integrity of all ecosystems and the protection of biodiversity in the response to climate change, as well as the Marrakech Proclamation of Action adopted in November 2016 at the twenty-second session, can and should contribute The objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, and vice versa.
Steps to be taken to accelerate implementation 2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and the Aichi Goals:
- The Cancun Declaration highlights commitments to accelerate the implementation of the Strategic Plan 2011-2020:
- Incorporate values of biodiversity into national accounting and reporting systems;
- Expand and strengthen ecologically representative and well-protected protected area systems and other effective conservation measures by area;
- Improve the regulatory framework for private sector activities and promote tools for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and for the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources
- Integrate biodiversity into educational programs to raise public awareness of biodiversity and its values.
- Promote conservation, sustainable use and, where appropriate, restoration of ecosystems.
Decisions taken by the United Nations Conference on Biodiversity
Capacity reinforcement :
The Parties adopted an action plan (2017-2020) that will strengthen and support capacity-building for the implementation of the Convention and its Protocols on the basis of Parties' needs for enhanced implementation The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Biodiversity Targets. With regard to the Protocols, emphasis will be placed on supporting the implementation of the Strategic Plan for the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and on promoting the universal ratification of the Nagoya Protocol, Development of measures to ensure its full functioning.
Implementation of the Aichi 11 target for protected areas is also progressing, starting with the commitment of the Group of Megadiverse Countries (the richest in biodiversity) to reach the Aichi 11 target and the announcement Of the host country, Mexico, the creation of marine protected areas that contribute to the achievement of 23% of marine protected area, more than double the overall target of 10%.
The Conference of the Parties welcomed the progress made towards achieving Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 and recognized that this would contribute to the implementation of other Aichi Biodiversity Targets.
Restoration of ecosystems:
COP 13 adopted a short-term ecosystem restoration action plan to help reverse biodiversity loss, recover connectivity, improve ecosystem resilience, improve ecosystem services, mitigate and To adapt to the effects of climate change. Soil degradation and improvement of human well-being while reducing environmental risks and shortages. The Action Plan will assist Parties and all relevant organizations and initiatives in accelerating and enhancing ecosystem restoration activities and supporting the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020.
Marine and coastal biodiversity:
The Parties welcomed a new set of areas described in the regional workshops as ecologically or biologically important (EBSA) marine areas in the seas of East Asia, the North-West Indian Ocean and the Northeast Indian Ocean. Parties also discussed ways to improve scientific methodologies and approaches to describing EBSAs. Parties have adopted a specific voluntary work plan to maintain and enhance the resilience of ecosystems in cold-water areas within the jurisdictional scope of the Convention.
The Parties took note of the voluntary practical guidance on the prevention and mitigation of the impact of marine debris on biodiversity and marine and coastal habitats. The guidelines contain measures to better understand the extent and impact of marine debris, improve waste management and recycling, reduce the production and consumption of plastics, increase production of environmentally friendly materials Environment and other measures.
Biodiversity and climate change:
COP 13 adopted a decision that welcomes the Paris Agreement and encourages Parties and other Governments to fully take into account the importance of ensuring the integrity of all ecosystems in the development of their national contributions Determined. It encourages Parties to take biodiversity into account when undertaking climate change mitigation, adaptation and disaster risk reduction measures and requests the Executive Secretary, in collaboration with relevant Voluntary Guidelines for the Design and Effective Implementation of Ecosystem Approaches to Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction.
Article 8 (j) on knowledge and traditional knowledge relating to genetic resources:
COP 13 has taken considerable steps to ensure that traditional knowledge relevant to conservation and sustainable use is protected and that its use is encouraged with the consent of indigenous peoples and local communities. Guidelines for the repatriation of traditional knowledge have been adopted for traditional knowledge that will help governments to establish mechanisms at the national level to prevent the illegal appropriation of TK. In addition, the Nagoya and Cartagena Protocols, in recognition of the important contributions of indigenous and local communities to their work, have decided to use the term "indigenous peoples and local communities" in their official decisions and documents. This does not alter the obligations of the Parties or the legal interpretation of the Protocols.
The Conference of the Parties adopted strategic guidelines for the next four-year replenishment period of its financing mechanism, the Global Environment Facility. The four-year framework of program priorities adopted by the COP guides the GEF in the development of its biodiversity strategy and related funding priorities for the period 2018-2022. The Parties also took note of the financial needs assessment for the Seventh Replenishment which identified the need to double the allocation for biodiversity and requested the Secretariat to forward it to the GEF.
The Conference of the Parties urged Parties to redouble their efforts to achieve the goals, including the doubling of total flows of international biodiversity-related financial resources to developing countries. Parties should report on their progress accordingly, with a view to considering a more comprehensive inventory and an up-to-date analysis of the financial reports received at the 2nd meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Implementation of the CBD (SBI) and The COP14.
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety:
Under the Strategic Plan for Biosafety by 2020, they also agreed to establish operational targets on biosafety legislation, risk assessment, risk management, The identification of Modified Living Organisms (LMOs) and public awareness. Parties deliberated on voluntary guidance on risk assessment of LMOs as a tool to facilitate risk assessment in accordance with the Cartagena Protocol, while recognizing that other guidance documents and national approaches may also Risk assessment in accordance with the Protocol.
COP-MOP 8 also agreed to make information available in the Biosafety Clearing-House for the transit and contained use of LMOs; Extend the Program of Work on Public Awareness, Education and Participation until 2020 with priority areas / activities; Migrate the BCH to a new platform to integrate the clearing-house mechanism of the Convention and its Protocols; Extend the mandate of the expert group (AHTEG) on socio-economic considerations; And to establish, as appropriate, panels of experts to provide advice on one or more scientific and technical issues.
Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing:
The Parties also agreed on a series of actions to further strengthen the implementation of the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing, which entered into force in 2014. At their second meeting in The framework of the United Nations Conference on Biodiversity. As well as the next steps to be taken to support the implementation of the Protocol. Among the decisions adopted at this meeting are the progress made on the Aichi Target 16 for Biological Diversity, the Access and Benefit-sharing Clearing-House, measures to build capacity and Cooperation with other international organizations or initiatives.
In addition, Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP13) and Parties to the Protocol (COP-MOP 2) discussed the issue of digital sequences on genetic resources and decided to consider, at their next meetings, Information for the purposes of the CBD and the Protocol, respectively.
Decisions were also made on synthetic biology, invasive alien species, sustainable wildlife management and other topics under the Convention and its protocols.